All posts by HotDogsCanineHeatstroke

We are a team of researchers investigating heatstroke in dogs.

Spotting Hot Dogs – the early signs.

One of the questions we are frequently asked is:

What does excessive panting actually look like?”

Thanks to Lily’s owner we can now show you!

Lily is a Lurcher, and so gets a little over excited when off lead and in sight of something she can chase… Thanks to her owner’s quick work, Lily cooled and made a full recovery.

If your dog is breathing like this, they are too hot! Time to take action:

  • Move them out of the sun, into the shade and away from heat if possible.
  • Make them rest – continued exercise (even walking) will limit their cooling.
  • If they don’t stop panting, it’s time to start active cooling! Use water (whatever you have available), get them into a breeze/next to a fan/into air conditioning and contact your vet!

Recognising heat-related illness during the mild stages saves lives.

Hot cats?

Yes you read that right, Emily’s inner crazy cat lady has been unleashed for today so we’re talking about frazzled felines for a change!

Can cats get heatstroke?

In a word, YES! Any animal can develop heatstroke, we just tend to think about dogs and horses because they are the animals most frequently featured in the news, and we exercise and travel with these species meaning they are more commonly put in a situation that can result in over-heating. Whilst cats tend to be heat-seekers – lying on radiators, in patches of sunlight and in front of fires – they too can find themselves in trouble in hot weather.

Which cats are at risk?

One of the most serious risks to cats in hot weather is becoming trapped somewhere hot. The majority of UK cats enjoy a free roaming indoor-outdoor lifestyle, meaning they can seek out warm areas to sleep such as greenhouses, sheds and conservatories. If they fall asleep and find themselves trapped, just like dogs in hot cars they will struggle to control their body temperature and develop heatstroke if they cannot escape.

Older cats, just like dogs and humans, are likely to be at greater risk of heatstroke. Any underlying health conditions like obesity, heart disease, thyroid disease, kidney disease or breathing disorders will make it harder for them to cool down. Dehydration is particularly dangerous in hot weather, and older cats may be less inclined to drink so encouraging fluid intake is really important (see below) in hot weather.

There are rare reports of cats developing heat-related illness from hunting behaviour, chasing birds that have entered a hot house or apartment for example, but unlike dogs exercise is far less likely to cause a problem to cats, as they’re (mostly) not stupid enough to run around in the heat.

Cats will develop heatstroke if trapped, or travelling in a hot car. So if you do need to travel with your cat for any reason ensure you are prepared to keep them cool during the journey:

  • Consider packing ice packs/frozen water bottles that can be wrapped in a towel to provide a cooling mechanism
  • Make sure you can create shade from the sun
  • Have access to water and a water bowl if there is a chance the journey could be long or delayed due to traffic
  • Ideally travel in the cooler parts of the day
  • If you don’t have air conditioning, ensure your cat is restrained in an appropriate carrier so the windows can be opened

Keeping hot cats cool

Keeping your cat hydrated is one key thing you can do to help them in hot weather. Cats are very particular about what they drink, so it’s worth being aware of your cat’s preference for water type, bowl type and location, and considering how they access their water.

Simply adding a few extra water bowls to different locations around the house and garden can help to improve your cat’s water intake, especially if you have an older cat or a cat with mobility problems. If you have multiple cats in your household then ensuring they have water bowls to spare is essential. Consider where you position the water bowls, easy access is important if your cat struggles to jump, and distance from food bowls and litter trays is important.

You can add ice cubes to your cat’s water bowl, but consider adding them to an additional bowl just in case your cat decides they don’t like them. If your cat has dental disease ice water may actually stop them from drinking (Emily knew Leo needed a dental when he stopped wanting to eat his ice cream). Some cats may enjoy using an ice cube as a toy.

Water fountains can be great for encouraging fussy cats to drink, Leo the cat definitely prefers running water so this was about 30 seconds after Emily first set up his water fountain:

Cat drinking from a water fountain
Leo drinking from his brand new water fountain

Prior to the water fountain Leo would ask to have the tap put on so he could drink straight from the spout:

Cat drinking from a tap
Leo prefers running water, such as straight from the tap.

There are some liquid diets for cats that may help to increase fluid intake, Leo received this one as a free sample in the post and he was VERY impressed. You can also consider freezing liquid foods and treats like this to provide a cooling snack to keep your cat entertained.

Cat drinking a liquid food from a bowl
Leo enjoying some HydraCare (liquid feed for cats)

Shaded areas in gardens are ideal places for cats to keep cool, if your cat is indoor only then stone floors or cooling mats can provide ideal cool locations for them to chill if it gets too hot. Some cats will seek out cooler places to nap, and may even tolerate ice packs/frozen water bottles wrapped in a towel to cool their toes.

Cat lying in the shade of plants
Leo keeping cool in the shade

Cats are particularly prone to sunburn and can develop skin cancer as a result, so if you have a cat with pink ears like Leo, consider using feline sunscreen to keep them safe when sunbathing.

How to spot signs of heatstroke in cats

The signs of heatstroke in cats are very similar to those in dogs as the underlying disease process is the same. If you are at all concerned about your cat you should contact your vet immediately, just like dogs the sooner your cat is treated the more likely it is they will survive.

Early signs may include:

  • Panting – open mouth breathing in cats is NOT NORMAL and should alert you that something is not right
  • Excessive sleepiness and confusion – we all know cats like to sleep but if you are struggling to wake them, or they are not responding normally to things like treats or fuss this can be a sign of over heating

More serious signs include:

  • Vomiting
  • Diarrhoea
  • Passing vomit or diarrhoea with blood
  • Becoming wobbly and uncoordinated
  • Fitting (seizuring)
  • Losing consciousness

A cat’s normal body temperature is 36.7–38.9°C, so if your cat has collapsed and you can check their temperature, anything over 40-41°C warrants active cooling. Move them away from the heat into the shade, use water to wet their coat and feet and use air movement (fans or air conditioning) and get them to your vet as soon as possible.

Leo and most of the cats at the animal unit at Brackenhurst have temperature sensing microchips so that Emily can monitor their temperature and these can be handy for detecting early problems, but a rectal temperature should be checked if your cat is unwell.

Microchip temperature readings from kittens
Microchip temperature checks on the kittens

Finally, heatstroke is far less common in cats than it is in dogs. Cats are smaller, which helps with heat loss, and cats are rarely dragged out on walks during the hottest part of the day! In particularly hot weather you may want to consider keeping your cat indoors to reduce the chances of them becoming trapped somewhere hot, but most cats are probably enjoying the current hot weather, and looking blissfully relaxed whilst doing so.

Cat sitting in daisies
Leo sunbathing in the daisies

Hot Dogs at bsava congress 2021!

Once again the Hot Dogs research team presented two clinical abstracts at this year’s British Small Animal Veterinary Association’s annual Congress, and we are pleased to be able to share them here.

As the UK temperatures continue to climb, it is essential every dog owner knows how to recognise the signs of heat-related illness, and how to effectively cool their dog in an emergency. Whilst these presentations are aimed at veterinary professionals, we’re making them available here too for anyone who is interested in our work.

ALWAYS seek veterinary advice if you are concerned your dog has developed heat-related illness. Less than half of the dogs that progressed to the severe form survived, so getting effective, early treatment is crucial.

Lots of myths get shared about cooling hot dogs, and sadly there isn’t much published evidence on which cooling methods work best! Our current understanding is that if your dog has overheated, but is still conscious, the most effective methods of cooling are to either immerse them in water (cold tap water is perfect), or wet them (with whatever water you have available) and fan them – air conditioning is perfect if you’re transporting them to the vet. If your dog has overheated and has lost consciousness, it is ESSENTIAL that you protect their airway, and don’t let them inhale any water. Dogs that have lost consciousness will cool far more slowly, so it is even more important to use effective cooling methods, such as spraying with water plus air movement.

Cooling methods used in dogs with heat-related illness under UK primary veterinary care during 2016-2018.

In this presentation, Emily shares the provisional results of our study exploring the cooling methods reported to have been used in the veterinary records of UK dogs presenting to their vet with heat-related illness. We also present the current evidence-base for cooling methods that are available for hot dogs, and discuss the importance of effective cooling.

You can download the abstract text here:

VetCompass Clinical Grading Tool for Heat-related Illness in Dogs – a novel tool to support clinical decision-making in primary-care practice.

In this abstract, Emily introduces our VetCompass Clinical Grading tool, which we hope will allow dog owners and veterinary professionals to recognise heat-related illness earlier, and hopefully support more effective management of this life-threatening condition.

You can download the abstract text here:

The full clinical grading tool is available in our paper, or in infographic form below:

New thinking on heat-related illness (heatstroke) in dogs

We’ve condensed our research so far into an article for the Kennel Club, sharing updates on the recognition of heat-related illness in dogs, the breeds at risk, and the most common triggers of this life-threatening condition.

You can read the full article here:

First published in the May 2021 edition of the Kennel Gazette. Copyright The Kennel Club Limited. Reproduced with their permission.

As summer finally arrives, we’re asking all dog owners to remember that

Dogs die in hot cars and on hot walks!

If your dog’s exercise has been limited by the UK’s lockdowns, or they have perhaps developed a little “lockdown bulge” they will be at greater risk of developing heat-related illness as the weather starts to warm. So make sure you can recognise the early signs, and always have a plan to cool your dog in an emergency.

Could you spot the signs of heat-related illness (heatstroke) in your dog?

We tend to go a little quiet over the winter, but we’re back with our latest research sharing the signs of heat-related illness in dogs presenting to UK vets. This is our third project working with the VetCompass team, and follows on from our research showing which UK dog breeds are at greatest risk of heatstroke and that exercise is the leading trigger of heatstroke in UK dogs.

Read the full study here (open access).

Our latest paper reports the most common signs of heat-related illness in dogs, abnormal breathing (excessive panting, and/or difficulty breathing) and lethargy (unwillingness to exercise, play or interact, changes in behaviour and tiredness). Crucially, dogs that are presented to vets showing just these early signs, were far more likely to survive.

When dogs presented to their vet with signs of severe heatstroke (neurological changes including multiple seizures, loss of consciousness or being comatose, bleeding disorders including passing vomit or diarrhea with blood, and organ damage), less than half survived (just 43.2%).

We are urging ALL dog owners to familiarise themselves with the EARLY signs of heat-related illness, as spotting these and taking appropriate action – cool your dog and seek veterinary advice – could save your dog’s life!

The AMAZING Camilla from the VetCompass team has turned our findings into this brilliant info-graphic, which we encourage you to download in full and share with as many dog owners as possible, as the UK weather starts to turn warmer!

Proposing the VC Clinical Grading Tool for Heat-Related Illness in Dogs

We will be presenting this tool in the BSAVA 2021 Clinical Abstracts in May, and will be sharing our findings on cooling methods used by UK vets, so watch this space for more updates over the coming months!

Dogs don’t die just in hot cars – the risk of exertional heat stroke in UK dogs.

Almost exactly two years ago we published our post – Dogs don’t just die in hot cars (to date our most widely read blog post!). Amidst the usual summer “Dogs die in hot cars” campaigns we warned owners about the risk of heat stroke triggered by exercise, and shared a particularly heart breaking story from a trainer who lost his dog after a seemingly routine training session in mild heat. We can now share an update on this important message, including the dogs most likely to be affected by exertional heat-related illness – aka heat stroke following exercise.

In the second publication from our Dogs Trust funded Hot Dogs canine heatstroke research project we share more findings from the VetCompass Programme, identifying the key triggers of heat related illness in UK dogs. This study uses the same dataset reported in our previous paper, reviewing the veterinary records of over 900,000 UK dogs. We identified 1222 dogs that had received care for heat-related illness (including heat stroke, but also the milder conditions heat exhaustion and heat stress) and reviewed the clinical notes to identify the trigger of the event and the outcome for the dog.

Of the events where a trigger was recorded in the history, 74.2% occurred after exercise.

Exposure to hot weather alone triggered 12.9% of events and travel or confinement in a hot car triggered 5.2% of heat-related illness events. Other triggers included confinement in a hot building (e.g. a conservatory), undergoing treatment at a veterinary clinic or professional grooming parlour, and sadly becoming entangled in blankets or bedding.

The risk of death following exercise induced heat stroke was similar to the risk of death following vehicular heat stroke, with around 10% of events resulting in fatality. The risk of death following heat stroke triggered by confinement in a hot building was significantly higher, with a third (33.3%) of events resulting in the dog’s death.

Exercise triggered over 10 times as many canine heat-related illness events as hot cars, and caused 8 times as many deaths.

To be clear, Hendricks is actually alive in this photo! He is demonstrating a “woogle” – rolling in wet grass to cool down after a run.

The risk is year-round!

A key result from this project was the year-round risk of exercise induced heat stroke. Exertional heat-related illness affected dogs during every month of the year, with fatalities in January and every month between March-October.

In contrast, vehicular heat-related illness and environmental heat-related illness occurred only between March and September (the UK’s spring to summer period). This mirrors the results we reported earlier this month, that internal car temperatures exceed 35°C  between April and September . Vehicular heat stroke deaths occurred between March and July, adding further evidence to support our recent call to launch the “Dogs die in hot cars” campaign earlier in the year. Environmental heat stroke deaths occurred from May to September, and building entrapment fatalities occurred between June and September.

Which dogs are most likely to develop exertional heat stroke?

We previously reported that Labrador Retrievers had no greater risk than crossbred dogs for developing heat-related illness in general. However, this is not true for purely exertional heat-related illness, Labradors were twice as likely to suffer from the condition. The Chow Chow, Bulldog, French Bulldog, Greyhound, Springer Spaniel, Cavalier King Charles Spaniel and Staffordshire Bull Terrier were all found to be at increased risk of exertional heat-related illness when compared to the Labrador, with these breeds plus the Pug, Boxer, Golden Retriever and Border Collie at increased risk when compared to crossbred dogs.

Image credit: Michelle Collard

Younger dogs (under 8 years old) were at increased risk of exertional heat-related illness, as were male dogs and neutered dogs. Overweight (both obese and large for their breed) dogs were also at increased risk, as were brachycephalic dogs in general.

This finding reflects the situation in humans, with young athletic men at greatest risk of exertional heat stroke, either following sport or after working in hot environments.

Which dogs are most affected by hot weather?

The breeds most at risk of environmental heat stroke – heat-related illness occurring after being exposed to hot weather alone without exercise – were the Chow Chow, Bulldog, Pug and French Bulldog. Again, dogs were found to have similar risk factors to humans for environmental heat stroke, with older dogs (aged 12 years or over) 3 times as likely to develop the condition.

The risk to flat-faced dogs

Brachycephalic, or flat-faced dogs, had two times the risk of environmental heat stroke and three times the risk of vehicular heat stroke when compared to mesocephalic dogs (e.g. those with a medium skull shape, like the Labrador or Springer Spaniels).

Flat-faced dogs are known to overheat at relatively low ambient temperatures (e.g. 21-22°C ), due to their limited capacity to cool via panting. Our findings suggest they are at increased risk of all types of heat-related illness, so efforts to change current breed standards and “breed to breathe” should be prioritised in the face of rising global temperatures.

How do you keep your dog safe?

The crucial thing is to know your dog.

Be able to recognise when your dog is getting hot – are they starting to pant, lying down more, seeking shade and cool surfaces to lie on. Know if your dog will run until they collapse, as these “eager to please” dogs like the Golden Retriever, Springer Spaniel and Staffordshire Bull Terrier are particularly at risk when out walking, running or even playing in warm weather.

If you own a flat-faced dog you need to be extra cautious in any situation where they could be exercising or exposed to a hot environment. Consider carrying water with you so you have a means of cooling them if you need to.

Image credit: Michelle Collard

If your dog is older, you need to be particularly cautious in hot weather. Just like humans, older dogs struggle to control their body temperature in hot weather, so you need to check that your dog is actually drinking enough, keep an eye on them sunbathing in hot weather, and consider using paddling pools and frozen treats to help them stay cool.

Dogs die in hot cars, but in the UK more dogs die after exercise, even during cooler months. Think carefully before taking your dog on a long walk in hot weather, and if you’re heading to the beach, make sure you can keep them cool and out of the sun.

To access the full paper click below:

Dogs Don’t Die Just in Hot Cars—Exertional Heat-Related Illness (Heatstroke) Is a Greater Threat to UK Dogs

Image credit: Michelle Collard

Dogs in hot cars: is the risk just a summer one?

Over 75% of dog owners use their car to transport or house their dog, but cars get hot. The ‘Dogs in Hot Cars’ campaign sends out a clear message every year that leaving a dog in a hot car is dangerous and potentially fatal for a dog. Despite this, over 8000 calls were made to the RSPCA in 2018 over concerns for dogs left in hot cars. The risk period tends to be associated with summer, and the campaign normally starts around May time. With an increasingly unpredictable climate and increase in intensity and frequency of heatwaves, the year round risk of car temperatures needs further investigation.

Our latest study looked at temperatures falling outside the range of 8-25°C . Broadly speaking, 25°C is the upper comfortable threshold for dogs to control their body temperature, slightly above the upper limit for some brachycephalic dogs to cool themselves unaided. This range is also the temperature threshold for the storage of many veterinary and human drugs, outside of which they can lose their efficacy with potentially dangerous consequences. An additional threshold over 35°C was included, at which point all dogs struggle to thermoregulate, particularly when enclosed in a car with no air movement.

The internal temperatures of four cars were monitored over a two-year period. This allowed us to monitor the temperatures 24 hours a day (no dogs were kept in the cars for the purposes of the study!). By the end of the study period, we had between 7300 and 17800 individual temperature readings for each month of the year. This allowed us to look at the impact of time of day and seasonality on internal car temperature.

UK car temperatures

Internal car temperature ranged from -7.4°C to 54.5°C with temperatures dropping below 8°C in every month except June and July. Temperatures exceeded 25°C in every month of the year and above 35°C from April to September. And whilst early mornings were generally cooler, temperatures over 35°C were recorded between 8am and 9pm.

The highest temperature recorded was 54.5°C

It is also worth bearing in mind that the risk may extend beyond stationary vehicles. Sitting in traffic on a hot day, or an air conditioning system failure could also be lethal for dogs trapped in the car.

This study highlights the year round risk to dogs in cars and the need for constant vigilance. This is particularly the case for those breeds and types of dogs considered more at risk of heatstroke, such as brachycephalic, overweight and older dogs.

The study highlights that the risk to dogs in cars is year round, not just restricted to the traditionally warmer summer months. Heat-related illness can be fatal so whenever dogs are in cars, owners should be cautious. Whilst traditionally the advice is to avoid exercise during the midday heat, peak car temperatures occurred between 14:00 and 17:00 hours from March to October. So late afternoon, from spring to autumn is the most at dangerous time for dogs in cars.

To read the full article click here.

Hot dogs – the UK dogs most likely to experience heat-related illness

After what feels like an eternity (and is in fact just under 2 years!) we can FINALLY share the first set of results from our Hot Dogs VetCompass project – exploring the risk factors, incidence and fatality of heat-related illness in UK dogs.

The paper is fully open access, so you can either view it on-line here:

https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-020-66015-8

Or download the PDF here:

We have a conversation article that summarises the key findings available here: https://theconversation.com/nine-dog-breeds-at-higher-risk-of-heatstroke-and-what-you-can-do-to-prevent-it-139501

Or, for the super short version, check out our infographic, designed by Becky – www.PawPrintsPosters.com

Hot Dogs research presented at BSAVA Congress 2020 .

You may have been wondering where we’ve been and what we’ve been up to, as it seems an age since we last shared any updates on our canine heatstroke research project…

Well, we finally have some exciting news!

Hot Dogs at BSAVA Congress 2020

Last month Emily presented two abstracts (preliminary findings) at the British Small Animal Veterinary Association’s annual Congress. Whilst the live event was an early casualty to the COVID19 lockdown, the abstract session was moved on-line in May, reaching a virtual audience of over 160 veterinary professionals from around the world.

The first abstract summarised our first study using the VetCompass TM database, reviewing the anonymised veterinary records of over 900,000 UK dogs to explore canine risk factors for heat-related illness. This abstract can be downloaded in text form below, or you can watch a recording of the presentation.

The second abstract explored the “triggers” for heat-related illness in UK dogs, reporting the most common reasons dogs develop heatstroke, and which reasons had the highest risk of causing death. This abstract can be downloaded in text form below, we hope to be able to share the video soon.

Findings from our VetCompass study will be published 18th June at 4pm!

Finally, our first Hot Dogs VetCompass study will be published TOMORROW AFTERNOON, where we report the incidence, fatality rate and canine risk factors for heat-related illness in UK dogs (the full paper of the first abstract). Thanks to a Dogs Trust Canine Welfare Grant this paper is Open Access, meaning you will be able to read the full version for free just as soon as it is published!

Watch this space for updates, we’re hoping it’s going to be a busy summer sharing our research, to help you make safer choices for your dog.

Getting hot under the collar – allowing your dog to pull on a collar and lead could be causing damage and increase their risk of heatstroke.

You only need to step inside a pet shop to see the vast array of collars, harnesses and leads available to dog owners. Owners can choose a particular look, colour scheme and material type. But amongst all of this, there is a more serious question of the role of the collar and the impact it may have on the dog. Historically, collars were used as a means of identifying a dog as being owned. Today, in the UK, as in many countries, it is a legal requirement for a dog to wear a collar and tag to provide key information about the dog, in order to identify the owner and to return it should it become lost. However, collars are now commonly used as a means of restraint and control for dogs to make sure they don’t wander off when out for a walk.

choc lab in collar

The problem is that the neck is a pretty sensitive area of the body, and many dogs pull on the lead. Ultimately, the neck connects the head to the rest of the body, carrying some pretty vital anatomical features such as the spinal cord, major blood vessels, the windpipe and the food pipe. Serious damage to the spinal cord in the neck can result in paralysis, or even death. Similarly, damage to the windpipe can impact a dog’s ability to breath or even result in choking, another potentially fatal injury. Linking to our normal research area, heat-related illness, compression of the windpipe can impact a dog’s ability to breathe effectively, impairing their ability to cool. When it’s hot outside, allowing a dog to pull on a collar and lead could potentially result in them over heating more quickly.

Sport_bulldog (2)

In fact, when questioned, almost 50% of owners suggested that their dogs pulled on the lead. This might range from a consistent light pull, to an owner being ’towed’ up the street by an overzealous dog. And of course, there is the sudden jerk on the lead from a normally calm dog, as a cat goes running across the road. On the other end of the lead is the owner, perhaps getting a little impatient at the 17th lamppost being sniffed, and offering a quick tug on the lead, or the frustrated individual jerking the lead to remind their dog to listen and behave. In all these instances, the resulting impact is a pressure applied to the dogs’ neck.

Two aspects are worth exploring; the impact of the type of collar – are some better than others? And the impact of the force applied – is a light pull on the lead less likely to cause harm?

loose lead walking (002)

Anne has been exploring just this topic, using pressure sensors attached to various styles of collar to test how much force then could be applying to our dog’s necks. Because of the risk to the dogs’ neck, and to retain consistency, a model neck (plastic pipe) was used instead of actual dogs. Working with Dr Mandy Roshier and Prof Donal McNally from the University of Nottingham, eight different collar types were tested. These were chosen to represent the range of commercially available types rather than focusing on specific brands: a rope slip lead, leather and thread, plain webbing, webbing padded with neoprene, thicker neoprene padded sports, wide lurcher, rolled collar and check chain.

The forces tested aimed to replicate a light pull on the lead (40N), a strong pull on the lead (70N) and a lead jerk (~141N).

The collars reacted differently in both the way the pressure was distributed and the amount of pressure applied to the model neck, the pressure increased as the force applied to the collar increased. Arguably the most interesting and valuable finding was that the pressure exerted on the neck model ranged from the lowest, 83kPa at 40N to the highest, 832kPa at 70N across the range of collars. To put this into context, in humans, pressure over 33.3 kPa has been shown to increase intraocular pressure (pressure within the eyeball which can lead to pain and ultimately blindness) and compress blood vessels, limiting blood supply to tissues. Tourniquets used in emergency situations to stop serious blood loss following trauma are used at a pressure of 33.3kPa on the arm and 40.0kPa on the thigh. In horses, pressures above 30kPa under the saddle are associated with back pain.

30kPa is enough pressure to strangle a human, and 230kPa is enough pressure to crush a human’s windpipe.

In short, no single collar tested provided a pressure anywhere near low enough to remove the potential risk of injury when pulling on the lead. Where dogs pull on the lead or the lead is jerked, there is a risk of injury to the neck for all collar types and styles tested, even where collars are padded or wide fitting. Collars are a great way to display tags and add a little personal flare to your dog. But for restraint and control, a non-restrictive harness is a much better option, and in hot weather a harness is definitely the safest option.

The full article is available here as a pre-print copy: FINAL Canine collars – an investigation of collar type and the forces applied to a simulated neck model

dogs-on-a-walk